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Mary Lee Brady, Ph.D.

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Hemings Generations

American Civil War 1861-1865

There were dozens of Hemings offspring in the Civil War. The offspring who volunteered, fought and died in the Civil War were the real bill payers among millions of Americans, Black, White and Mulatto.  They helped prove that people of African heritage also had not only a desire for liberty but many, not all, were willing to sacrifice their liberties and lives to secure it for others.  

Hemings Generations

Before the Civil War there were many states that viewed themselves sovereign and slavery as a property right via virtue of 17th century reasoning that people of African heritage were not human beings subject to Pauline Christian mandates but property created by law.  Added on top of this view was an emerging Judeo-Christian ideology rooted in the old testament interpretations that Black peoples were cursed by God to be bearers of water and hewers of wood for superior people with the blessings of God.  When war finally did erupt, it is for certain that Blacks in the Tidewater area of Virginia very soon dominated by Union Army and Navy power were quick to believe their prayers were being answered.  Almost without exception the institution of chattel slavery was conceived, birthed, nurtured and matured in places birthed by those early settlers at Jamestown in the year 1619.  The slave trade grew like a wild weed from those years when men in the name of profit determined that buying and holding Africans in slavery was somehow good.

The Underground Railroad provided fugitive slaves a means to escape from the South. Conductors like Harriet Tubman led runaways from the South, while antislavery Northerners helped by providing safe havens from slave catchers who roamed the Northern and border states searching for escapees. Most of the fugitives fled to Canada. The actual number of slaves assisted during the nearly 80 years that the network existed was not overwhelming, but the publicity generated served to fuel mistrust between the North and the South.   Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.  Microsoft Encarta 2008. 1993-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Before the Civil War, the underground railroad did not generate but a small fraction of the more than 50,000 slaves escape attempts per year between the years 1850 and 1860, ... yet it inspired millions of slaves to learn and know that free people, Black and White in America and Canada believed they should be free like Whites. What proponents of the Underground Railroad, such as Harriet Tubman, vividly demonstrated was that even old men and women could yearn for and achieve liberty from bondage.  Literally tens of thousands of enslaved Blacks along the James River heard of her being referred to as Moses, and certainly wondered if they should dare seek and follow her to the promised land.  Slave owners along the James River heard the tales about the Black Moses, and true to form put out bounties for her capture or killing; but, the facts are she was not inept or easy to be found.  Harriet Tubman remains one of the greatest African-American heroes.

African-American youth, male and female, slave and free, living in the Tidewater areas of Virginia reaching across the eastern shores into Maryland were quick to realize that liberty was not free; but was available to those willing to heed the call of people like Harriett Tubman who came and called upon them to follow her to freedom.  Historians have generally not explored the depths of inspiration given by the woman many Blacks, perhaps in the thousands, came to view as their Moses.   

Within a year of the much heralded assault by South Carolina on the United States Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, the Virginia Peninsula that had first given birth to African slavery in America was abandoned by the Confederate States of America and its champion Virginia on advice of General Robert E. Lee.  He quickly recognized that with upwards of 25,000 or more young Black men who had abandoned the James River Plantations of their enslavement, ... said plantations were of little or no further value in the confederate fight, and left it to James River plantation owners to fend for themselves in protecting their properties, ... chattel and otherwise. 

Their tobacco crops could not be harvested, shipped or sold in the face of a Union Navy that blocked shipping ports like Williamsburg and Norfolk. Lee knew that even if the Union Army around the tidewater ports were defeated and driven away, the tobacco trade was dependent upon the backs of young Black men to load their wagons and ships.  And, realistically the decision to withdraw from further battles was prompted by run-away slaves who poured into Union lines with their liberty in mind even though not legally free until the Emancipation Proclamation to be issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.  Fort Monroe was their Statue of Liberty!

                                    War of Cousins

First Cousins, White, Mulatto, Black: 

                   ALL grandsons of Thomas Jefferson

                                               All Related to Madison Hemings

It Seems Men are Created Equal -- When They Are forced to die AT WAR

In Grateful Memory By Their Three Generations of Many Dozens of Cousins, Nieces and Nephews Who Owe So Much To Those Who Offered and Gave Their Lives That Others Would Have The Blessings of Life, Liberty & Pursuit of Happiness proclaimed by their famed ancestor. 

No.
Soldier Name
Side
Function
Regiment Name

1

Hemings, Amos

Union

Infantry

164th Regiment, New York Infantry

2

Hemings, Charles

Union

Cavalry

1st Regiment, Indiana Cavalry

3

Hemings, Elijah

Union

Infantry

13th Regiment, West Virginia Infantry

4

Hemings, Richard C.

Union

Infantry

21st Regiment, Connecticut Infantry

5

Hemings, Thomas

Union

Infantry

175th Regiment, Ohio Infantry

6

Hemings, Thomas

Union

Infantry

178th Regiment, Ohio Infantry

Hemings,William H.

Union

Cavalry

7th Regiment, West Virginia Cavalry

Captured by confederates and held at Andersonville, Georgia, United States

No.
Prisoner's Name
Side
Unit

1

Hemings, John C.

Union

16 Iowa

2

Hemings, Thomas E.

Union

175, 178 Ohio

 
Harriet Hemings Butler-Spears (below) was the daughter of Madison Hemings and ... grand-daughter to Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. She was also the beloved "Grandma Spears" to Nancy and her siblings who knew her intimately when growing up in Ohio.  Research  to-date indicates the husband of Harriet Hemings was James Butler in the same 175th and 178th Regiments as her brother William.  He was killed and left his wife Harriet as a  widow.  Harriet would later remarry to Henry Spears, another Civil War veteran fortunate to have survived many battles for the liberation of African-Americans living in Ohio and beyond.  Upon her death Harriet was buried in a grave adjacent to both husbands.
 
        
 
Personal note entry by Nancy Harriet Lee to her brother Percy Lee
Dear Grandma Spears:
 
As a child I learned to know and love you by endless stories from my father Marion Thomas Lee and aunt Nancy Harriette Lee both of whom were nurtured by your embrace of many years.  From them I came into knowledge of the Hemings heritage dating back to your father and my great grand-father Madison Hemings.  And, I knew through this lineage his mother, "The Black Mariah" and her mother Betty Hemings.  But, it was not until later in life, by reading and inquiries for more information did I begin to comprehend that so many relationships of love by and among the Hemings descendents were coated with passions and pains of life.
 
I now know more about you and your beloved sister Catherine and can only imagine the passion and pain you both suffered in the loss of your husbands, brothers and nephews in the Civil War.  I write this letter some 145 years after the fact to express to my children and heaven above that I for one am appreciative for the life you lived and happiness sacrificed for me and mine.   I have often visited the site of your grave in Blooingburg, Ohio and now understand why you chose to be buried between James Butler your first husband and Henry Spears his friend and your second husband.  It reminds us that both White and Men of Color served and sacrificed in the great Emancipation War and were brothers in Christ both before and after the war.   I want all generations up from your generation to know and appreciate you and your brothers and sisters in the generation of better and more fruitful lives now being lived.
 
For my small part in telling your story and those many people of your childhood, ... I have bequeathed to my daughter and grand-children the Civil War documentary video by author and publisher Ken Burns that helps explain what was likely seen and heard by your generation, the one of Madison Hemings and Mary McCoy, your mother, that brought you forth and that which came after with my grandmother Mary Elizabeth Hemings Butler Lee.

Ohio Regiments

Infantry Units

During the American Civil War, the State of Ohio provided the United States government with three types of military units: artillery units, cavalry units, and infantry units. Ohio supplied the federal government with more than 260 regiments of men, not counting several companies that formed the basis of regiments in West Virginia, Kentucky, and Massachusetts. A total of 310,654 Ohioans served in the Northern army for varying lengths of time. The federal government required each state to supply a set number of soldiers determined by the state's population. Ohio exceeded the government's call for men by 4,332 soldiers.

This number does not reflect the 6,479 men who paid a monetary fine to the government to escape military duty. It also does not include the 5,092 African-American soldiers who served in the United States Colored Troops or in units from other states, including the famous Fifty-Fourth and Fifty-Fifth Massachusetts Infantry Regiments. Ohio exceeded the federal government's requirements by more than fifteen thousand men.

Ohio men fought in every major battle of the war. Within forty-eight hours of President Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers in April 1861, two Ohio infantry regiments already had departed for Washington DC. An Ohio brigade protected the Union army's retreat at the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861. Ohio regiments also helped secure Kentucky and West Virginia for the North. They participated in the Battles of Fort Donelson, Gettysburg, Antietam, Fort Wagner, Shiloh, Chickamauga, and many others. Approximately 11,237 Ohio soldiers died from wounds received on the various battlefields, while another 13,354 men perished from diseases. Eighty-four of every one thousand Ohio men who served died in the war. Another forty-four for every one thousand deserted. This was among the lowest desertion rates in the Northern states.

"Infantry Units", Ohio History Central, September 6 2007,

Ohio History

First Cousins, White, Mulatto, Black:  Related via Elizabeth Hemings and  Thomas Jefferson

All Related to Madison Hemings in body and spirit.

It Seems Men are Created Equal -- When They Are forced to die AT WAR

No.
Soldier Name
Side
Function
Regiment Name

1

Hemings, Amos

Union

Infantry

164th Regiment,

New York Infantry


2

Hemings, Charles

Union

Cavalry

1st Regiment, Indiana Cavalry


3

Hemings, Elijah

Union

Infantry

13th Regiment, West Virginia Infantry


4

Hemings, Richard C.

Union

Infantry

21st Regiment, Connecticut Infantry


5

Hemings, Thomas

Union

Infantry

175th Regiment, Ohio Infantry


6

Hemings, Thomas

Union

Infantry

178th Regiment, Ohio Infantry


Hemings,William H.

Union

Cavalry

7th Regiment, West Virginia Cavalry


No.
Soldier Name
Side
Function
Regiment Name
1Hemmings, AlferdUnionInfantry86th Regiment, New York Infantry
2Hemmings, CharlesUnionInfantry38th Regiment, Iowa Infantry
3Hemmings, Charles T.UnionInfantry34th Regiment, Iowa Infantry
4Hemmings, ClaybornUnionInfantry111th Regiment, United States Colored Infantry
5Hemmings, DunksUnionInfantry63rd Regiment, United States Colored Infantry
6Hemmings, ElijahUnionInfantry13th Regiment, West Virginia Infantry
7Hemmings, FrederickUnionInfantry65th Regiment, New York Infantry
8Hemmings, GustavusUnion 8th Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps
9Hemmings, HerveyUnionInfantry1st Regiment, Delaware Infantry
10Hemmings, IsadoreUnionCavalry4th Regiment, New York Cavalry
11Hemmings, JohnUnionInfantry149th Regiment, New York Infantry
12Hemmings, JosephUnionInfantry50th Regiment, Pennsylvania Infantry
13Hemmings, Joseph B.UnionInfantry7th Regiment, California Infantry
14Hemmings, LeviUnionInfantry13th Regiment, West Virginia Infantry
15Hemmings, RichardUnionCavalry7th Regiment, West Virginia Cavalry
16Hemmings, Richard C.UnionInfantry21st Regiment, Connecticut Infantry
17Hemmings, ThomasUnionInfantry175th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
18Hemmings, WilliamUnionInfantry73rd Regiment, Ohio Infantry
19Hemmings, WilliamUnionCavalry7th Regiment, West Virginia Cavalry
 

1

 Hemings,James W.

Confederate

Infantry

23rd Battalion, Virginia Infantry


  
  

2

Hemings,William C.

Confederate

Infantry

23rd Battalion, Virginia Infantry


 

The Participation of Randolph's in the Union Army

No.
Soldier Name
Side
Function
Regiment Name
1Randolph, AlfredUnionInfantry121st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
2Randolph, Benjamin F.UnionInfantry167th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
3Randolph, Benjamin S.UnionInfantry167th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
4Randolph, Clarkson F.UnionInfantry125th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
5Randolph, ClarkstonUnionInfantry125th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
6Randolph, ClaytonUnionInfantry86th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (6 months, 1863-4)
7Randolph, Clinton D.UnionInfantry74th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
8Randolph, DavidUnionInfantry65th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
9Randolph, David O.UnionInfantry151st Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
10Randolph, David S.UnionInfantry188th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
11Randolph, Edward L.UnionCavalry1st Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
12Randolph, Edwin L.UnionCavalry1st Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
13Randolph, GeorgeUnionArtillery2nd Regiment, Ohio Heavy Artillery
14Randolph, GeorgeUnionInfantry56th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
15Randolph, GeorgeUnionInfantry66th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
16Randolph, George W.UnionInfantry7th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
17Randolph, HenryUnionArtillery6th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
18Randolph, Hiram B.UnionInfantry33rd Regiment, Ohio Infantry
19Randolph, I.C.UnionInfantry125th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
20Randolph, IsaacUnionInfantry47th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
21Randolph, Isaiah M.UnionInfantry36th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
22Randolph, JamesUnionInfantry60th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (1 year, 1862)
23Randolph, JamesUnionInfantry156th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
24Randolph, James C.UnionCavalry12th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
25Randolph, James F.UnionInfantry18th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (3 months, 1861)
26Randolph, James F.UnionInfantry88th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
27Randolph, James M.UnionArtillery5th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
28Randolph, JeffersonUnionInfantry184th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
29Randolph, JeffersonUnionInfantry187th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
30Randolph, JobUnionCavalry7th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
31Randolph, JohnUnionArtillery6th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
32Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry6th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (3 months, 1861)
33Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry7th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
34Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry81st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
35Randolph, JohnUnionCavalry12th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
36Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry81st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
37Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry89th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
38Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry140th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
39Randolph, JohnUnionInfantry148th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
40Randolph, John C.UnionInfantry19th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
41Randolph, John FritzUnionInfantry123rd Regiment, Ohio Infantry
42Randolph, John G.UnionInfantry104th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
43Randolph, John T.UnionInfantry101st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
44Randolph, Jonathan R.UnionCavalry12th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
45Randolph, JosephUnionInfantry114th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
46Randolph, JosephUnionInfantry125th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
47Randolph, Joseph T.UnionInfantry125th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
48Randolph, Justin S.UnionInfantry18th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (New)
49Randolph, Justin S.UnionInfantry18th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
50Randolph, Justin S.UnionInfantry39th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
51Randolph, Justis S.UnionInfantry18th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (New)
52Randolph, Lee J.UnionInfantry102nd Regiment, Ohio Infantry
53Randolph, LewisUnionInfantry31st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
54Randolph, M.S.UnionInfantry156th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
55Randolph, MartinUnionInfantry153rd Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
56Randolph, MiltonUnionInfantry16th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
57Randolph, MurryUnionInfantry70th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
58Randolph, NelsonUnionInfantry126th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
59Randolph, NicholasUnionInfantry143rd Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
60Randolph, P. M.UnionInfantry99th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
61Randolph, ParkinUnionInfantry148th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
62Randolph, PhilipUnionInfantry191st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
63Randolph, PhilipUnionInfantry196th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
64Randolph, Philip M.UnionInfantry50th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
65Randolph, Philip N.UnionInfantry50th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
66Randolph, Phillip M.UnionInfantry99th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
67Randolph, RobertUnionInfantry189th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
68Randolph, RobertUnionInfantry193rd Regiment, Ohio Infantry
69Randolph, StephenUnionInfantry148th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
70Randolph, SylvanusUnionArtillery26th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
71Randolph, TaylorUnionCavalry6th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
72Randolph, WilliamUnionArtillery6th Independent Battery, Ohio Light Artillery
73Randolph, WilliamUnionInfantry147th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
74Randolph, WilliamUnionInfantry167th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
75Randolph, William H.UnionInfantry176th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
76Randolph, William H.UnionInfantry189th Regiment, Ohio Infantry

   
 Name
  

Side

  Regiment 
1Jefferson, A. UnionCavalry1st Regiment, Ohio Cavalry
2 Jefferson, Adelbert UnionInfantry198th Regiment, Ohio Infantry 
3 Jefferson, AlbertUnionInfantry198th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
4 Jefferson, Albert C.UnionInfantry166th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
5Jefferson, AndrewUnionInfantry185th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
6Jefferson, CharlesUnionInfantry36th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
7Jefferson, ColumbusUnionInfantry60th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
8Jefferson, David E.UnionInfantry55th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
9Jefferson, Fred F.UnionInfantry101st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
10Jefferson, Frederick I.UnionInfantry101st Regiment, Ohio Infantry
11Jefferson, George E.UnionInfantry55th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
12Jefferson, John A.UnionInfantry72nd Regiment, Ohio Infantry
13Jefferson, JosephUnionInfantry140th Regiment, Ohio Infantry (National Guard)
14Jefferson, ThomasUnionInfantry27th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
15Jefferson, ThomasUnionInfantry178th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
16Jefferson, ThomasUnionInfantry185th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
17Jefferson, Thomas L.UnionInfantry48th Regiment, Ohio Infantry
18Jefferson, Thomas W.UnionInfantry90th Regiment, Ohio Infantry

 

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